Year of Grant

Title of Research

Grant Recipient

Title of Publication




Exploring the Role of Family Legacy on Decisions within Family Firms

Hammond, Nathan - Mississippi State University;
Pearson, Allison - Mississippi State University

Family Firm(s) Outcomes Model: Structuring Financial and Nonfinancial Outcomes Across the Family and Firm

Family Business Review

December 1, 2016

Family firms are distinguished theoretically from nonfamily firms due to their pursuit of unique, family-related aspirations and goals. The pursuit of these aspirations and goals leads many family firms to define success or failure in terms of a broader set of outcomes than nonfamily firms. Despite this, family firm research has generally taken a constricted view of family firm outcomes by concentrating on narrowly defined financial performance as measured by accounting and/or market-based indicators. We contend that this somewhat myopic focus has slowed the field’s development to some degree, by constraining our ability to test its fundamental tenets. To address this, we draw on several disciplines to systematically order family firm outcomes within a family firm(s) outcomes model that encompasses both financial and nonfinancial dimensions. While financial performance is important in research and practice, herein we refer to both financial and nonfinancial outcomes and explain how these outcomes map on the family unit and the family firm. Furthermore, we suggest measures that can be used and explain how the model can be applied when researchers select financial and nonfinancial outcomes important to family members as the family firm’s success or failure is gauged.

Exploring the Role of Family Legacy on Decisions within Family Firms 


From Research to Practice: Planning for New Futures in Family Business Education

De Massis, Alfredo - Lancaster University;
Kotlar, Josip - Lancaster University

Learning Resources for Family Business Education: A Review and Directions for Future Developments

Academy of Management Learning & Education

September 2015

As business schools are expanding their offering of family business courses and programs, educators are challenged to identify and select useful learning resources that could be used to teach family business topics. To assist these efforts, we reviewed a repository of learning resources for family business education that includes an extensive list of books, teaching case studies, films, and magazines. This resource review organizes and maps existing learning resources for family business education, discusses the potential usefulness of different types of resources, identifies gaps in current family business education, and outlines directions for future work. The guidelines developed in our review will help expand and further enhance the pool of resources available for family business education, and ideally, will contribute to reducing the gap between family business research and practice.

From Research to Practice: Planning for New Futures in Family Business Education


Family Ownership, Succession Intentions, and Professionalization

Fang, Hanqing - Mississippi State University
Memili, Esra - University of North Carolina–Greensboro
Van de Graaff, Robert Randolph - Mississippi State University

Chrisman, James J. - Mississippi State University

Barnett, Tim - Mississippi State University

Does Size Matter? The Moderating Effects of Firm Size on the Employment of Nonfamily Managers in Privately Held Family SMEs

Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice

September 2016

Family firms' decisions to hire nonfamily managers are influenced by agency costs, socioemotional wealth concerns, and the availability of high‐quality nonfamily managers in the labor pool. We hypothesize that owing to these factors, family ownership and intrafamily succession intentions will be negatively associated with the proportion of nonfamily managers in private small‐ and medium‐sized (SME) family firms. However, firm size is hypothesized to positively moderate those relationships because as family firm size increases, the benefits of hiring nonfamily managers rise faster than the costs. Tobit regression analyses of 7,299 private SMEs support our hypotheses.

Family Ownership, Succession Intentions and Professionalization


Family Capital – the Theoretical and Practical Solution for Entrepreneurial Capacity over Generations in Family Businesses

Melin, Leif - Jönköping International Business School
Brundin, Ethel - Jönköping International Business School

Not Yet Published



Understand Hybrid Identity Organizations: The Case of Publicly Listed Family Business

Boers, Borje - Jönköping International Business School – Sweden
Nordgvist, Mattias - Jönköping International Business School – Sweden

Not Yet Published



Contextualizing Organizational Boundary Decisions: Management Consulting in Family Business

Hanisch, David - European Business School
Klein,  Sabine B.- WHU Otto Beisheim School of Management

Not Yet Published



Non-family Managers' Compensation in Family Firms: Tournament and Game Theory Perspectives csw3

Memili, Esra - Mississippi State University

Misra,  Kaaustav - Mississippi State University
Chrisman, James J. - Mississippi State University

The propensity to use incentive compensation for non-family managers in SME family firms

Journal of Family Business

April 2013

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to use the socio-emotional wealth perspective to examine how the level of family involvement reduces the propensity to use incentives to non-family managers in small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) family firms.Design/ methodology/ approach - Primary data were collected from U.S. firms. To evaluate the hypotheses, a logit model was employed on a final sample of 2,019 small family firms. Findings - Results suggest that family influence and control and intra-family transgenerational succession intentions are negatively related to the propensity to use incentives. Also, the interaction effects of family management and ownership reduce the propensity to use incentives. Originality/value - The paper's empirical findings imply that despite their potential economic benefits, family involvement reduces the probability that incentives will be offered to non-family managers because such incentives are perceived to be inconsistent with the preservation of the family's socioemotional wealth. Also, choices that reflect a preference for socioemotional wealth may not only be a function of decision framing and loss aversion but also by the size of the economic pay-offs that might be available. The findings suggest that non-family managers in SME family firms may be affected by a family's preoccupation with its socioemotional endowments. Thus, the authors expect that this paper provides further avenues to explore the decisions about attaining non-economic and economic goals and other strategic issues in family firms. 

Non-Family Managers' Compensation in Family Firms: Tournament and Game Theory Perspectives


The House of: When Family Businesses and Business Families Rise, Stand, Fall, and Rise Again

Litz, Reg - University of Manitoba

Not Yet Published



The Succession Process: An Examination of Perceptions from Stakeholders' Perspectives

Dalmia, Sonia - Grand Valley State University
Levenburg, Nancy M. - Grand Valley State University

Not Yet Published



To Develop a Family Orientation Scale

Lumpkin, George T. - Texas Tech University
Martin, Wendy L. - Trinity International University

Not Yet Published



The Impact of Family Business Ownership and Management on Families

Gibb Dyer, William - Brigham Young University
Dyer, William Justin - University of Illinois

Putting the Family Into Family Business Research

Family Business Review

April 9, 2009

Much of the recent research on family businesses has focused on how the family affects business performance. This commentary suggests that researchers should also consider how certain variables affect both the business and the family. Suggestions for how to do such research are presented.

The Impact of Family Business Ownership and Management on Families


Beyond Principal-principal Agency Theory: The Rising Influence of Foreign Minority Principals Versus Dominant Family Owners in an Emerging Economy

Hoskisson, Robert E. - Rice University
Heechun, Kim - Georgia State University

Socioemotional Favoritism: Evidence from Foreign Divestitures in Family Multinationals

Organization Studies’ special issue on “Advancing Organization Studies in Family Business Research: Exploring the Multilevel Complexity of Family Organizations”


We theorize how family and non-family CEOs in family multinational enterprises (FMNEs) divest foreign subsidiaries. In doing so, we propose an integrative framework that supplements the socioemotional wealth (SEW) perspective by introducing the notion of socioemotional favoritism (SEF). Using this framework, we hypothesize and find that family CEOs are less likely than non-family CEOs to divest by analyzing 161 Korean manufacturing FMNEs between 1998 and 2003. We also find that family CEOs avoid divesting foreign subsidiaries with larger affective endowments, particularly those under the family control through threshold ownership and those located in host countries where families have already lost ownership of subsidiaries through past divestitures. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings for the family firm literature.



The Development of Entrepreneurial Strategies in Family Business

Astrachan, Joe - Kennesaw State University

Marchisio, Gaia - Kennesaw State University
Mazzola, Pietro - IULM University – Italy

Not Yet Published



The Effects of Human Resources Management, Manufacturing and Marketing Strategies on Competitive Strategy and Firm Performance in an Emerging Economy: A Comparative Analysis

Acquaah, Moses - University of North Carolina
Amoako, Kwasi -Gyampah - University of North Carolina
  Jayaram - University of South Carolina

Resilience in family and nonfamily firms: an examination of the relationships between manufacturing strategy, competitive strategy and firm performance

International Journal of Production Research

September 2011

Economic recessions that affect firms regardless of location, increased competition and changes in customer expectations, all contribute to disruptions that require firms to be resilient. Building resilience is a long-term strategic initiative that changes the way a firm operates by aligning linkages between functional strategies and competitive strategy. This article compares the relationship between manufacturing strategy and competitive strategy, and the relationship between manufacturing strategy and performance for family and nonfamily firms in the developing economy of Ghana. Using data from 122 manufacturing firms, the results indicate that delivery strategy is associated with the competitive strategy of cost leadership for family firms while flexibility is associated with cost leadership for nonfamily firms. Flexibility is related to the competitive strategy of differentiation for family firms but not for nonfamily firms. While delivery is associated with both sales growth and profitability for family firms, for nonfamily firms only flexibility is related to profitability. Our study suggests that family firms and nonfamily firms in Ghana use different manufacturing strategy components to build resilience. Implications of this pattern of results are discussed.

The Effects of Human Resources Management, Manufacturing and Marketing


Benchmarking Family Business Research with Other Disciplines: Implications from a Satisfied Meta Analysis of Papers Published in Flagship Journals

Motwani, Jaideep - Grand Valley State University

Not Yet Published



FFOBS: A Proposal to Develop a Culturally Sensitive Scale to Measure Family Dynamics, Business Dynamics and their Interface

Levenburg, Nancy - Grand Valley State University

A Thematic Analysis of Cultural Variations in Family Businesses: The CASE Project

Family Business Review

January 2010

This article shows cross-cultural variations in family businesses using nine cross-cultural dimensions of family business from the CASE project. A content analysis of the emergent themes from a set of contextual articles on family businesses in 10 regional clusters worldwide, as defined by the GLOBE program, is conducted. This thematic analysis shows qualitative as well as quantitative variations in the family businesses of different cultural regions. Further research is required to understand the rich diversity of family businesses within each cluster and to refine scholars’ knowledge about how the dimensions of family business are manifested in different clusters.


Commitment as a Competitive Advantage in Family Business

Davis, James H. - University of Notre Dame (Utah State University since 2011)
Hayes, David H. - University of Notre Dame
McClure, Stephen - Purdue University

Not Yet Published



Operational Effectiveness as a Source of Strategic Advantage in Family Owned Businesses: An Analytical and Empirical Study

Kumar, Ashok - Grand Valley State University

Gupta, Vipin - Simmons College

Not Yet Published



A Framework for Evaluating E-Business Applications for Family-Owned Businesses

Levenburg, Nancy - Grand Valley State University
Magal, Simha - Grand Valley State University

Using importance performance analysis to understand and guide e-business decision making in SMEs

Journal of Enterprise Information


Purpose - E-business adoption among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) has been limited because of resource constraints and a failure to understand the strategic value of e-business. To facilitate decision making concerning e-business applications and their implementation, simple, low cost tools are needed to assist in analyzing and developing effective e-business strategies. This paper aims to evaluate the use of e-business applications among SMEs, to test the robustness of importance-performance (IP) analysis models and to present IP mapping as a resource/tool for decision making. Design/ methodology/ approach - A total of 19 e-business motivations were identified from the literature and incorporated into a self-administered survey questionnaire. Data were collected from 439 SMEs located throughout the U.S. Findings - Most IP studies have assumed that importance and performance are independent; however, three recent studies have argued otherwise, identifying positive, negative and v-shaped relationships. The study finds a fourth, N-shaped relationship between importance and performance. This is an extension of the v-shaped relationship and appears when the full range of performance scale values is displayed. Research limitations/ implications - The relationship between the "importance" and "performance" variables suggests a path of travel that can help show the e-business adoption states and the possible undulations in e-business strategies along the path. Firms can identify their location on an IP map relative to the N-shaped path and then identify the path to the optimum location on the map. Originality/value - This paper should be useful for academic researchers and business practitioners seeking guidance in terms of which e-business applications to adopt and implement.

A Framework for Evaluating E-Business Applications for Family-Owned Business


Succession Planning Practices in SME’s: An Empirical Analysis of West Michigan Family Businesses

Motwani, Jaideep - Grand Valley State University

Succession Planning in SMEs
An Empirical Analysis

International Small Business Journal

October 1, 2006

This study reports the results from a survey of 368 family-owned small to medium size enterprises (SMEs) with regard to the importance, nature, and extent of succession planning. By categorizing SMEs according to their annual revenues, total number of employees, and number of family members employed within the firm, significant differences were found between larger and smaller firms. Consistent with extant literature, the findings reveal that most family members join the firm for altruistic reasons. Issues related to family relationships were rated as significantly more important in firms in which more family members were employed within the firm. Moreover, for firms with less than U.S. $1m in revenues, a high priority is placed on selecting a successor who possesses strong sales and marketing skills. The findings show that regardless of their size, it is important for family-owned businesses to develop a formal plan for succession, communicate the identity of the successor, and provide training/mentoring to the incumbent CEO.

Succession Planning Practices in SME's: An Empirical Analysis of West Michigan Family Businesses

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