Aerial Image Above Muskegon County Wastewater System
High Impact Targeting (HIT) Model
The High Impact Targeting (HIT) Model is an online tool designed to identify sources of extreme sedimentation and erosion in agricultural areas within a watershed. The HIT Model uses Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and sometimes Bing Maps to display these sediment and erosion data that contribute the most amount of sediment deposition.
The HIT Model was developed by the United States Department of Agricultures Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), the Michigan Department of Agriculture (MDA), the Huron Conservation District, and Michigan State Universitys Institute of Water Research (IWR). The tutorials and demonstration videos specific to West Michigan were developed by Grand Valley State Universitys Annis Water Resources Institute (AWRI) through a grant by the Frey Foundation.
Organizations like conservation districts, watershed groups, or other organizations that coordinate and develop methods to reduce and control the erosion and sedimentation in their respective areas.
The HIT Model combines the results from two geospatial models to map and quantify sediment loads. The first model is the Spatially Explicit Delivery Model (SEDMOD). This model provides an estimate of the percentage of eroded soil that finds its way into a nearby waterbody. The second model, the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) developed by the NRCS, estimates the annual volume of soil eroded in tons/acre/year. The outputs for both models are integrated to estimate the annual volume of sediment transport to a water body from a specific area.
To access the HIT Model on the internet, the user must first launch an internet browser (ex. Internet Explorer, Firefox, etc.). Once the browser is open, the user must type into the URL bar www.iwr.msu.edu/hit2.
Tutorials and demonstration videos are available online on the AWRI webpage ( www.gvsu.edu/wri/isc ). These tutorials and videos under the HIT Model tab on the left-hand margin will cover how to use the HIT Model.
There are three main advantages to using HIT Model outputs for your watershed. The first is though the HIT Models interaction with Bing Maps the user can visually see specific areas of high erosion and sedimentation using aerial photographs. Using the Birds eye view option of the Bing Maps toolbar the user can explore the high-risk areas in even greater detail. Second, the creators of the HIT Model have already determined how much sediment or erosion can be reduced if a BMP is used. A user can also compare different BMPs against each other to see which one is most cost effective. Third, the information is available for the whole Great Lakes regions. This is an improvement on the first version of the HIT Model, which only had three watersheds.
The limitation to the HIT Model are that it is only applicable to agricultural lands and the model can only classify areas of sedimentation and erosion correctly 70% of the time. This means that sediment and erosion from the urban landscape would have to be calculated a different way. It is also recommended that a trained professional inspect the area to confirm that it is a site of sediment or erosion input before installing a BMP.
A tutorial was created for the Toledo Metropolitan Area Council of Governments, and focuses on the Swan Creek Watershed in northern Ohio (Download the tutorial at http://18.104.22.168/hit2/support/hit_tutorial.pdf ). Also, a brochure and PowerPoint presentation are available on the HIT Model webpage.
Question about the overall HIT Model project can be directed to Jon Bartholic at firstname.lastname@example.org . Technical questions (or errors) can be forwarded to Glenn ONeil at email@example.com . Questions about the tutorials or demonstration videos can be directed to Jon VanderMolen at firstname.lastname@example.org .