General Education Program

Bloom's Taxonomy

1. Knowledge

Student recalls or recognizes information, ideas, and principles in the approximate form in which they were learned. Student exhibits memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms and basic concepts.

Words that reflect knowledge:

cite identify meet recite select quote
collect index name record show  
count indicate outline repeat study  
define label point reproduce tabulate  
draw list quote retell trace  
enumerate match recall review tell  


2. Comprehension

Student demonstrates understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas.

Words that reflect comprehension:

add clarify describe express interact restate
approximate classify discuss extend interpret review
articulate compare distinguish extrapolate observe rewrite
associate compute elaborate factor order summarize
characterize detail estimate generalize paraphrase translate
cite differentiate explain infer predict visualize


3. Application

Student uses new knowledge. Student solves problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.

Words that reflect application of knowledge:

acquire capture customize factor prepare show
adapt change discover illustrate produce solve
administer collect dramatize interpret project teach
apply complete develop investigate provide transcribe
attain compute employ modify relate transfer
calculate construct establish operate sequence translate


4. Analysis

Student examines and breaks information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Student makes inferences and finds evidence to support generalizations. Student analyzes elements, relationships and organizational principles.

Words that reflect analysis:

analyze compare discriminate infer order subdivide
arrange confirm differentiate inspect outline summarize
audit connect distinguish interpret points out test
break down contrast experiment investigate prioritize train
calculate correlate explain manage query transform
categorize criticize explore maximize relate translate
characterize detect focus minimize select question
classify diagnose illustrate optimize separate  


5. Synthesis

Student compiles information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions. Student can derive a set of abstract relationships from the information.

Words that reflect synthesis:

adapt correspond formulate model portray specify
anticipate create generalize modify prepare speculate
arrange depict generate negotiate rearrange structure
collaborate design improve network refer substitute
combine devise incorporate organize reinforce summarize
compile express integrate outline relate validate
compose facilitate intervene overhaul reorganize write
construct format invent plan rewrite  


6. Evaluation

Student presents and defends opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria.

Words that reflect synthesis:

appraise counsel discriminate hypothesize predict select
assess criticize estimate interpret prescribe summarize
compare critique evaluate judge rank support
conclude decide examine justify rate test
contrast defend explain measure recommend validate
convince determine grade persuade reframe verify

*These lists are not exhaustive.

Bloom B. S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York: David McKay Co Inc

Page last modified April 19, 2013